Friday, 30 October 2015

Conversation with Severina Lemachokoti on FGM in Kenya

Severina Lemachokoti
Female Genital Mutilation leads not only to severe physical consequences but also psychological and emotional ones ranging from depression, to lack of self-esteem, isolation, solitude, marginalization, insecurity, memory loss and fear of sexual intercourse to post-traumatic stress disorder. A counseling psychologist working with girls in rural Kenya shares her experiences in this interview.

I wanted to talk about the psychological consequences of girls undergoing FGM and how they relate with others within their community. It was also important to determine what is needed, in this case in Kenya (but it can definitely fit other countries) to educate and train girls and women to end FGM. I spoke to Severina Lemachokoti. Severina underwent FGM when she was 13. She is a former primary school teacher and a psychologist working with Kenya’s Anti-FGM Board (under the Ministry of Devolution and Planning) in Samburu County. She is also the founder of Naretu Girls and Empowerment Program, a community-based organization focused on educating and empowering girls and women. 

It’s important that Severina calls on all psychologists and teachers in the country to take action and create a network of support for those girls and women who have already undergone FGM and those who are at risk.

VALENTINA MMAKA - As a psychologist most of your work is done with girls and women who have undergone FGM and survivors, can you share with us how is you do this?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - As a Counseling Psychologist, I offer girls and women psycho-social support. This helps them come out of the trauma from the cut and the stigma they feel after learning about the effects of FGM. This is usually done after or during the trainings. When cases of FGM are reported at the hospital, I follow up to help the patients/victims. It’s a work full of challenges because there are no facilities that help the survivors to stay and get the necessary support they need in one place.

VALENTINA MMAKA - We all know the physical and psychological consequences of FGM but please share with our readers what are the most common psychological conditions manifested by the girls you work with in your community.

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - The girl's self-esteem is lowered by the practice. A young Samburu girl is not supposed to answer back to the men. They are supposed to be submissive. The rituals that surround the cut force young girls to act like adults even when they are still at a tender age; this leads to early marriages. The trauma of the unknown pain follows the girl to womanhood. The pain is from the razor blade without any medication. Those women who have shared their stories and from experience say that the pain from FGM is worse than that of giving birth because of the veins that are cut (in the clitoris). The girls are not prepared for the cut/ceremony. It’s not like the boys who are prepared by the whole community. Therefore the girls are gripped by anxiety and fear of what awaits them. 
In a situation where girls are married immediately after the cut and almost immediately after go to their husbands (whom they do not know beforehand) they fear the new environment. When infections or cysts manifest, women do not talk about it and they end up living with the pain and trauma.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Most girls undergo the cut during school vacation. How deep is this practice still rooted in the county you work in? How much do the girls acknowledge the consequences of being cut?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - Yes, girls are still cut during school vacation. Those who are not in school undergo the cut anytime as long as the parents are ready to have them cut. The practice is still deep-rooted in most of the communities in Kenya. Girls still fear to make decisions about saying No to FGM.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What normally happens at school when girls come back after the cut? How are they perceived from younger mates and, most of all, what is their real emotional and psychological state?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - Most girls feel good because they think they are more mature than the rest. They feel superior and accomplished with the cultural requirements (they are always told that they are ready for marriage). On the other hand, in schools where sensitization has been done, girls feel stigmatized and embarrassed upon realization of the effects of FGM and fear of what they might go through at a later stage in their lives ( womanhood/giving birth). They become anxious of their future and what fate might bring them.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Do they ever question why this is done to them in a more critical way a part from knowing that it's a tradition? I mean have you ever encountered girls who would like to take a stand against FGM regardless to tradition?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - Most of the girls go through the cut as a cultural practice and a rite of passage. They just know that they have to go through it. Many girls would like to say NO but only a few, so far, have succeeded to stay without being cut (but still they fear speaking out about it). Others would like to, but their parents and family can’t allow them have the last decision. Most girls are not assertive.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Do you think there's a difference, in terms of emotional and psychological stability, for a girl who lives in the west to be brought home to be cut during summer holidays, and a girl who lives in the village within her community? I mean to say, is there a difference in the impact that FGM has on the two in relation to their life experience?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - Yes, the girl from the west might be more informed of the effects she will suffer on an emotional and psychological level, but she might also have no idea of other cultural practices surrounding the cut, and this will traumatize the girl since she will not be ready for it. A girl who lives in the community is aware of the culture and the requirement. She might have a rough idea on when she will be cut, so she can prepare herself for the cut. Her trauma will be less than the girl living in a western country.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Living with a permanent physical and psychological scar like the cut is something that millions of women unfortunately have to deal with on a daily basis. What is the path to become self-conscious of themselves getting rid of the stigma and discrimination (especially if you live outside FGM practicing communities) in order to make impact despite the experience they had?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - A lot of sensitization is needed and psychological counseling centers to be put up. Counseling is needed for post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety.

VALENTINA MMAKA - How much the of trauma from the cut could lead to a mental health condition? 

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - This is something that we need to look into and do more research on.

VALENTINA MMAKA - We know Kenya has a lack of adequate psychologists and psychiatrists and services are often expensive or non-existent in many areas of the country. What could be the best strategy of support to help one who has undergone FGM?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - The campaigners should have basic skills of psychological counselling. Those who are already in the career should think of how to start centers that can help with cheaper services.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Teachers, not only in Kenya but worldwide, are not trained to deal with FGM survivors or girls at risk. How important would it be if teachers and school facilitators could be properly trained? How much of their training and preparation could make impact in a classroom?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - Teachers are key persons who could help girls understand their rights and help them realize the decision of saying NO. Their training is very important because most of them have the trust of the children (girls) and this gives them an opportunity to educate girls on the effects of FGM. Teachers will help girls love school more than the retrogressive cultural practice. 

VALENTINA MMAKA - Immigrants often continue the practice while abroad, despite the fact they are confronted with a new culture, just to keep a tight the bond to their original culture. Migration is a tough experience for many and many communities feel that they don' t want to change what has been in their culture for centuries. From the ground, how much is the real pressure of communities on their youth about FGM?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - I have not encountered any migrant who has undergone FGM but I only read about them. In most communities FGM comes with responsibilities of the traditions which make every youth to comply with the cultural laws. The youth have an obligation to fulfil in the community because they are the ones who will see the culture progress to the future generations.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Many young girls who don't want to undergo the cut are often left alone, with no choice than to follow what the family requires from them, unless they run away from home. Addressing a message to these girls, what would you suggest? And to teachers?

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - As much as the girls would like to run way from the cut, there are no places for them to seek for help. Counselling centers, educational centers or rescue centers are needed to help these girls. Teachers need to be trained so that they can be able to handle the survivors and the rescued girls.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What's your opinion on how Kenyan institutions are handling FGM? 

SEVERINA LEMACHOKOTI - Most institutions in areas where the practice is done have allowed the sensitization programs to be carried out but there is still a lot to be done. There should be a curriculum to guide institutions for FGM. 

Published on Pambazuka 743 (23/09/2015)

Friday, 4 September 2015

#2 Conversation with Jecinta Isei

Last Week I had a conversation with young activist Jecinta Isei from Rombo Village about her advocacy to eradicate FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) in her community. Here a short video where she introduces herlself and explains the importance of her work as an activist.
Well done Jecinta!

Friday, 28 August 2015

In Conversation with Jecinta Isei, a young activist who fights to eradicate FGM

Kenya outlawed Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in 2011, despite this 27% of the people still practice it.  The Demographic Health Survey of Kenya shows that FGM among 15 -49 years declined from 37% in 1998 to 27% in 2009, which  shows how slowly this culture is changing.
FGM is known to be a cultural practice, though some people refers to it as a religious demand despite the fact that no religion mention it. 
In countries like Kenya FGM is deeply rooted among the Maasai, the Pokot, the Samburu, the Somali, the Kuria, the Kalenjin and many more people and it is considered a taboo. Even though there are many organizations (international and grass root) working to eradicate FGM, the practice is still carried on. 
As a matter of fact the Kenyan Government should make mandatory FGM as part of a complementary educational curriculum on human rights in all the schools of the country, so that the cultural change that FGM needs to be dropped, could start from the youth who are called to be the real change makers of the society.
In my years working with FGM survivors I met many activists and artists committed in using their art for social justice, and I always feel very delighted when I meet with young activists who despite all the difficulties they face, they never give up and always have clear in mind their final goal. One of these is Jecinta Isei from Rombo county.

Jecinta Isei is 20 years old and she has a dream, a dream that many girls of her age, coming from rural Kenya, have: get an higher education.  Jecinta has also one more reason to want to go to college, she is an activist advocating to raise awareness on FGM in Loitokitok County. Going back to her personal story, she told me that the reason why she couldn’t finish her education is that she always refused to undergo the Cut.  Her family finished to pay her school fees for not following the tradition which is, in this remote region of Kenya, deeply rooted. This didn’t stop Jecinta to look for her biggest goal:  become a well trained activist who can stand for thousands of girls to save them from the cut.
Thanks to local teachers she is now able to visit schools and meet with young students where she speaks about the dangers of FGM. Life is not easy she admits, being discriminated and ostracized because she is not cut, but Jecinta doesn’t give up. She knows what is the right thing to do, reaching the age of 20 being uncut in Maasai culture, is quiet an achievement and this tells how stubborn and courageous she is.  Here’s our conversation.

VALETINA MMAKA - Jecinta where do you live and what is your background?
JECINTA ISEI – I come from a humble background in Rombo, Loitokitok sub county. I live with my mother because my father passed away long time ago when I was still a small kid. Life has been a bit harsh on me now that I come from a culture where FGM is very rooted and thanks to God I escaped the menace through schooling outside the Maasai environment.

VALENTINA MMAKA - When and how did you start being an activist advocating against FGM?
JECINTA ISEI -  As a young girl I really disliked the fact  that we have to undergo the cut. I realized that all my primary school friends who underwent the cut while we were still in class 5, dropped out of school and got married. Some even died while giving birth at home due to lack of knowledge from both their uneducated parents and from the men who married them. That is why I said to myself that I must work hard, stand up to be a woman of substance, and support my fellow girls not to undergo FGM so that they don’t get married at an early age.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Being just 20, you’re one of the youngest activists in your community to raise awareness on Female Genital Mutilation. How did you become an activist?
JECINTA ISEI - Through the hate I have for FGM and whatever I see in my community especially my class mates, I decided to work hard and talk to young girls and prove to them that you can be a leader and woman without the cut.

VALENTINA MMAKA -  Growing in a culture that demands girls to be cut, what have you been told by your family about the importance of being a circumcised girl?
JECINTA ISEI - My extended family believes that if you give birth as a woman without the cut you will kill your parents, which is the greatest myth and it has the biggest impact in our community now that people believe in it.

VALENTINA MMAKA -  You go in schools in your community talking to girls and boys about FGM; do you receive support from the teachers? What is the main challenge you face every day?
JECINTA ISEI - The biggest challenge I have is cultural believes and transport to the schools now that no organization has been supporting my work and I am willing to get to the farthest schools.

VALENTINA MMAKA -  And what is the feedback from the students? What do they really know about FGM and what do they think about it?
JECINTA ISEI - Through a short documentary that I carry with me on the phone, photographs and at times support from AMREF whenever they go for their outreaches. Most of the pupils, if given the chance to deny the cut, they would stand up and say no to the whole  community.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What is the best reward you get form your activity?
JECINTA ISEI -  The girls really make me strong and feel the power to move on now that their eyes are on me and they believe that I will be their savior.

VALENTINA MMAKA - You haven’t been cut, how did you manage to reach 20 without being cut in a community where usually girls are cut between 9 and 15? How did your family react to this decision?
JECINTA ISEI -  It has been a tough fight and thanks to my mother for making sure that I don’t stay at home whenever schools were closed because it would have been forced on me, studying outside Loitokitok was my escape way out.

VALENTINA MMAKA - You said your family didn’t pay your school fees to attend college, was that because of not wanting to be circumcised? What was your first reaction? What are you doing to change this?
JECINTA ISEI - Yes not undergoing the Cut have been my nightmare with some of my community members and it has contributed 100% of my school fees not being payed and now my mother cannot afford to pay my education, I am struggling hard to get a sponsor so as I can pay my collage fee and  continue supporting young sisters.

VALENTINA MMAKA – Jecinta if a girl refuses to undergo FGM, objectively what option is she left with?
JECINTA ISEI –  To be honest there’s no other option than running away from home or seek help from the local chiefs or church leaders.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What is your relationship with your girl friends? Do they judge you because you’re not cut?
JECINTA ISEI - I have a few girls who are my friends now.  90% of the girl I know are married and they are told not to associate with me because I haven’t undergone the cut, they call me a baby, so most of my friends are from other communities and the girls I meet in  schools during my visits.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Have you had some support from age mates (female and male) for your stand against FGM?
JECINTA ISEI - Yes through the Youths Resource Centre in Loitokitok I meet up with age mates who are really supportive especially who have already undergone the cut and they always tell me they regret having underwent the cut.

VALENTINA MMAKA - I guess education will improve also your activism, what do you expect to achieve in the next future?
JECINTA ISEI - God willing I would like to study and get a degree in gender and community development, I was called upon to join a collage and study project management and community development so I have to raise 80,000 ksh to do diploma for the whole year as school fees that is 12 months.

VALENTINA MMAKA - In Kenya there are quiet some movements and activists trying to eradicate FGM in their own communities. Di you ever confronted yourself with some of them? How do you think FGM will be eradicating within the Maasai people? Do you think that by involving men could help?
JECINTA ISEI - I have been working with some organizations, but not many organizations in Loitokitok are working to end FGM. I think FGM can be eradicated if we talk to the parents especially the Fathers and am glad that a movement of men involved to end FGM and promote girl education was started for the Morans (Maasai Worriors), they are the ones who marry and they are also fathers so their involvement will highly bring a change and impact.

VALENTINA MMAKA -  What is your biggest dream? My Biggest dream is to have more girls standing out to study, reject FGM and see a successful mentorship programs for girls in Loitokitok Kajiado County.
JECINTA ISEI -  Complete my Education so as when I talk to them they know I am a well informed woman with dignity.

I invite all the readers to contribute in giving support to Jecinta's cause even just posting here a comment. She may carry her interview in the schools she visists and share with students and teachers to make impact. Your concern would be much appreciated.

Jecinta's story will be part of my new coming book: THE CUT. Global Voices for Change. Breaking Silence on Female Genital Mutilation (Italian and English editions by Edizioni dell'Arco, 2015).

Tuesday, 4 August 2015

Meeting Author Pat Lowery Collins 3#YABooksOnFGM

This is the last of a series of 3 interviews I had with YA authors who wrote about Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

This week's guest is Pat Lowery Collins author of The Fattening Hut , Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2005

Pat Lowery Collins has been teaching Creative Writing at Lesley University. She is a writer, painter and illustrator.

Helen doesn’t want to stay in the fattening hut. She’s told her mother that she’s too young, not ready for it. Why must she marry so soon—and gorge on rich meals for months, until she’s heavy and round, like a good bride? Like her mother and sister before her, like all the women of her tribe. When she learns the terrible secret the fattening hut harbors, Helen becomes even more defiant and confused. Lonely, scared, and feeling confined by her family, culture, and tradition, she fights for a chance to be educated, young, and free.

VALENTINA MMAKA -  When did you first encountered FGM in your life and what made you decide to write a novel for young readers?

PATO LOWERY COLLINS - I first heard of FGM from my daughter when she was a young physician.  She worked in an area where there were Somalians and other immigrants who came to her to be treated for complications from the procedure.  She also told me how in America it was grandmothers who continued the practice, often performing the cutting themselves on their grandchildren when the parents were absent.  I did not have an urgency to write about this then but only later when I learned about the fattening rooms. Some of my adult friends had teenaged children at that time who were anorexic.  I wanted to write a story about the dichotomy between our Western idea of beauty and the ideals of beauty in other cultures.  When I found that the fattening practice also included FMG, I knew I needed to address this issue as well.

VALENTINA MMAKA - FGM among other forms of child abuse and violations of human rights, is not so much seen in literature. There is a long list of anthropological/ sociological essays and memoirs, but in terms of novels, short stories and poems or plays, there's very little on a global scale. Can you reflect on the reasons of this?
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - It has been my experience that young adults do not want to read about this.  My book has been assigned in schools, but I don’t believe a young woman would pick it up of her own accord.  Most have not heard of FGM and do not want to think about it.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What was the feedback like from your young readership? Did you ever confronted with readers from FGM practicing communities?
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - I’ve had very little feedback from a young readership.  The book received wonderful reviews, and a number of adult readers have told me that it is a beautiful book and they felt the subject was handled with sensitivity.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Why according to your view Young readers do not feel like reading a story about FGM? What do you think is the idea behind not picking a certain kind of book? And would this choice be different if the reader comes from a FGM practicing country or for example from the US?
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - It's been my observation that young women in this country are just exploring their own sexuality and are uncomfortable with the subject of FGM.  They are not personally threatened by it and don't think any concerns about it apply to them or their world.  Perhaps FGM information should be included in their sex education classes. 

VALENTINA MMAKA - What would you like to say to our fellow writers across the world to encourage them to write about FGM to sensitize readers?
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - It seems to me that the subject needs to be handled delicately and presented to a young person in the presence of a trusted adult who is capable of answering their questions.  The story itself must be gripping enough to encourage someone to read it all the way through.  Perhaps it would profit from the immediacy of a more contemporary setting.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Against those who assume that we cannot write about FGM because no other than a survivor, understand what is it, what would you say? (it's just a provocative question as there are some "radical" activists who oppose people who are not from a certain culture to  speak  out about FGM). 
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - I have seen a few remarks and reviews about The Fattening Hut that would suggest I don't understand the cultural context.  As far as not being able to write about it because I haven't experienced FGM, there are many things I haven't experienced such as slavery and rape, but I can be outraged by them.

VALENTINA MMAKA - As an artist, what kind of researches did you do for Fattening Hut? What did you keep in mind while writing? Did you want to convey a specific feeling towards the issue?
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - I read whatever I could on the subject.  Some books were very graphic and alarming; others were personal stories of living with the disfigurement.  For the setting I invented a multi-ethnic tribe that lived on an island. This was primarily because I didn’t know enough about any particular area where FGM is practiced and because I didn’t want to offend any specific race or people.  Because I saw that the island of Anguilla had the topography I needed for my story, I spent time there learning about its flora and fauna and history, which included a history of shipwrecks and the absorption of survivors into the tribal population. Although I knew FGM was accepted in many societies as a necessary rite of passage, I felt its roots were firmly set in paternalism and ignorance.  Naturally, my intent was to convey it as a highly negative practice and to show how the women of a society were often the ones who performed it and caused the practice to continue.

VALENTINA MMAKA - In your novel Helen, the main character, fights to receive and education to free herself, how much is important education in allowing children and teens to stand against bad cultural practices?
PAT LOWERY COLLINS - I think education is essential in teaching girls to value their bodies and themselves.  That’s why I introduced a renegade, Helen’s Aunt Margaret, to show how mentoring and support from a trusted adult is an important key. 

The Fattening Hut is another YA novel to read in schools and to add to any teen's bookshelf. 
You can find Pat Lowery Collins here

Tuesday, 21 July 2015

Meeting Author Rita Williams Garcia- 2#YABooksOnFGM

This is the  second  of a series of 3 interviews I had with YA authors who wrote about Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

This week's guest is Rita Williams Garcia author of No Laughter here (Amistad 2004).

No Laughter here sees  Akilah and Victoria who is from Nigeria, who happen to be best friends and whose friendhip seems suddenly lost forever after a summer vacation. When school closes Victoria goes back to Nigeria to spend her holidays , this is what Akilha thinks. But the reality is different. Only after some time Akilah will know the real reason why Victoria went home that summer and why she had lost her laughter. Moving, inspiring.  It is also a courageous book because Rita Williams Garcia gives voice also to those who supports FGM or at least justify within cultural relativism. This has surely been a challenging book to write, backing the outrage for the practice and providing a space of confrontation. 

VALENTINA MMAKA - Rita you’ve wrote No laughter here, a YA novel which is about teens entering womanhood and FGM. How did you think about this story? Why Female Genital Mutilation?
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA - Even though technically No Laughter Here is labeled as YA, it is at its heart a younger story.  I couldn’t imagine writing Akilah and Victoria as older characters once I learned most females are cut as children.  When I learned of the rite as a young woman long before No Laughter Here, I always knew I’d write about FGM.  I also knew I wasn’t ready to write it as a young twenty-something.  About a dozen years later, I attended a forum at the Sheraton in New York City on the subject.  It was hosted by author Alice Walker, who had recently written Possessing the Secret of Joy. The chapter in NLH titled “Ayodele,” meaning “joy has come home” in Yoruba, is a small shout out to Walker’s novel.  Gloria Steinem also spoken at that conference, as had a woman from South Africa, women’s health professionals and numerous activists.  I listened to them speak on the abuses and rights of women, but I heard no mention of circumcised girls or babies.  If someone spoke on those realities, I missed it.  I wanted to know more about young girls and FGM, however with a full-time job, grad school, two small children and a husband frequently away for work, the timing was wrong for me to delve deeper—and this would need time and devotion.  Maybe two or three years later I was at a baby shower where my then 8 year-old daughter developed a fast friendship with another 8 year-old who was half Nigerian.  I watched the two whisper and giggle like they’d known each other all their lives.  I remember enjoying this sight of what makes girls truly girls and just like that, it occurred to me: Not all eight year-old girls are laughing and sharing fun secrets.  I’d found my way into Akilah and Victoria’s story and I set out to tell it. The protagonists of the story are two girls friends, Akhila and Victoria. Victoria comes from a country where FGM is practiced. The time Victoria returns from holiday, spent in her own country, Nigeria,  things change between the two friends and this because Victoria underwent the ritual cut. You say she has lost her laughter.  How did you empathize with the fact that a similar experience occurred to Victoria would have brought a change in her relationship with her best friend?
True friendship between girls is a unique bond.  Friendship between two truly connected friends is long-lasting.  You share everything and constantly pour your likes, loves, hates, fears, and secrets back and forth into each other to confirm your likeness and trust.  I imagined these girls teased each other about everything and found the same things funny.  Conversely, I knew the two would rally for one another and find the same things horrific.  When Victoria no longer brings herself completely to their friendship, her one true friend, Akilah, can only feel confusion, anger, and loss.  Friendship bereavement can be profound for children, especially when coupled with confusion and unexpected change.  Although Akilah didn’t undergo the cut, she, like Victoria loses her laughter because she is missing Victoria, who has become a part of own herself.  Akilah cannot help but feel empathy for Victoria.

VALENTINA MMAKA - I found very interesting and compelling that you brought to the reader also the other side of the issue, the side of who practice FGM. So Mrs Saunders, the girls’ teacher, is sympathetic towards Victoria ‘s experience. Actually she is the only audible voice that sympathize with her experience. What was you real intention on portraying such a character? 
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA - Even a practice as inhumane as FGM must be understood.  We don’t have to agree but we should understand what is behind it.  To just say, “No More” or “No” doesn’t work effectively if we don’t understand why it exists on cultural, gender identity, psychological, and economic levels.  We must understand the thoughts and feelings of the people before we can suggest alternatives or even move to eradicate.  To truly be effective, teaching or mandating alternatives should align with the psychology and culture of the practicing people.   For the record, I am against the cut or any other form of ritual mutilation.  It is important to not just push my own agenda or beliefs, but to also show the reader the other point of view, or in this case, to at least strongly hint at it.  While I was writing, I didn’t believe Victoria’s family would sit down and explain it to her or to Akilah; custom trumps children’s rights and it was too personal and none of Akilah’s business (from the family’s perspective). I made use of her teacher, who’d asked the students earlier in the story how far did they travel over the summer?  In other words, “What did you see or experience that was different from your familiar?  What did you learn about the world?”  I felt Ms. Saunders would have the experience, world view and sensitivity to talk to an angry Akilah about FGM.  I also knew she’d understand that Akilah wouldn’t keep an open mind because FGM wasn’t an abstract or foreign ritual—it had profoundly and permanently harmed her friend.  Still, I had to put it out there for Akilah and the reader to consider.  If not now, perhaps later when the subject, or a similar subject appeared.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Don’t you think that FGM should be discussed out of cultural relativism and if so, how would it be the best way to do so?
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA - It’s hard for me to separate FGM from culture, gender and psychology.  They’re all entangled.    But as subject matter, yes, I believe FGM can be discussed beyond culture.  A willingness to have the discussion must come first, and is without a doubt, the greatest obstacle.  If there’s a gathering of interested parties, then any thoughtful and open discussion can be had.  I usually start by breaking down the terms: female, genital, and mutilation and go from there.

VALENTINA MMAKA - When the book came out did you have difficulties in being on media, in libraries, in school visits because of the topic?
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA - Forgive me if I laugh.  The only media coverage for NLH included a few book reviews and an online discussion of whether the book was appropriate for school aged children.  One book review deemed this book about fifth graders appropriate for juniors in high school.  (Had they read the book?)  The publisher sent the book to a known feminist and anti-FGM advocate who then sent a scathing letter about how the book was filled with lies and that they (Harpercollins/Amistad) should not publish it.  Was there trouble in schools and bookstores?  You can’t have trouble if the book isn’t on the shelf.   There were order cancellations once decision-makers learned the subject matter of the book.  I’ve had a few school invitations rescinded.  If I was invited to a school to do a workshop, upon occasion I was told I could not use NLH as a basis for the workshop.  This wasn’t always the case, but I was never shocked or outraged when it happened. I knew there would be pushback and forms of censorship.  I didn’t care at the time.  The book found its allies primarily available through libraries and many librarians made displays so readers could find the book. 
What was the feedback from your young readers?
Thank goodness for young readers.  They handled the subject matter well and many were stirred to activism. My first reader was my friend’s twelve year-old daughter who went on to make FGM her seventh grade school project.  My first letter was from another twelve year-old who, after having read the book, told her mother to stop what she was doing and to read the book, so they could talk.  I’ve had letters from boys who talked about their own circumcisions.  A lot of these letters relayed personal stories that I was entrusted with.  It was huge!  They wanted more information.  At the time I kept a text file with titles of books (The Fattening Hut, No Condition is Permanent, Desert Flower, Who Fears Death), films like Kim Longinotto’s The Day I Will Never Forget, and web sites like Waris Dirie’s foundation.  The young readers I heard from connected with a human struggle and not with the sexually taboo subject that adults immediately associate with FGM.  I received an email from an 8th grade student who invited me to her class to talk about NLH.  I said I would come if it was all right with her teacher.  Shortly, thereafter, I was in her classroom where she shared that she had been circumcised as a baby.  She didn’t quite put the pieces together until she read NLH.  Her classroom applauded her.  A few of the boys shared stories—one, whose family was from a practicing country that fled to the US to escape FGM for his sisters.  I’ve received many letters for this book, and made a few appearances to speak about NLH, but this was the experience that had made writing No Laughter Here worth every book return.  Let me also note that I did get letters from readers who didn’t understand what the book was about.  These included a letter from a 16 year-old female, and one from two eighth grade girls. 

VALENTINA MMAKA - Why do you think publisher are not open to publish YA novels on FGM?
RITA WILLIAMS AFRICA - Publishers are reticent to publish a book on this subject for young people—teen or younger—because the market won’t bear it.  Well, so far.  I’m hoping a writer will come along and compel the market with a story on this subject that can’t be denied.  I’m hoping we can keep an open mind and care to know about the plight of people who might seem distant from us, but are not at all.  We all want the right to our own bodies, don’t we?

VALENTINA MMAKA - Sometimes authors and teachers   fear to “touch” topics like sexuality though sexuality is often misrepresented on media, tv etc…what could be the relevance of books in providing “spaces” to raise an equal dialogue?
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA -Remember that for adults, FGM is an impossible subject to broach.  I am used to being met with blinders, pained faces, and covered ears, whereas children will ask questions.  Children make faces and noises, but once we start talking, they find the subject relatable in many ways.  I gauge the audience and tend to not give more than I think they can handle.  That goes for adults as well, although, adults are harder to talk to. And mention “clitoris?” Young people who might know the term will snicker or turn red, but adults flee.
A few things must be in place for schools to have a safe space to have dialogues about topics with sexual content.  The school must have the support of the community—not so easily won, but well worth it.  The discussion leader or teacher must feel comfortable in leading or guiding the discussion.  Just as people in FGM practicing countries deal with issues of shame if they try to circumvent the brutality of the ritual, people who are charged to talk about it must also deal with issues of shame and discomfort.  I believe it also boils down to consent.  No one should be forced to read my book or any other book with sensitive or sexual content.  Safe space must be a safe space, free of judgement.  By the same token, no one should be barred from reading the content or exploring it.

VALENTINA MMAKA - I spoke to many educators in different parts of the world and some told me that talking about FGM in school would raise a new form of discrimination. How would you reply to this?
I’m not sure which form of discrimination these educators refer to.  Is that if we speak on female genital mutilation, then we must also speak on foreskin circumcision performed on males?  If a discussion on male circumcision arises as a result of reading books about FGM, then let the discussion commence!  Or are they mean who can participate in the readings and discussion?  If that’s the case, make participation elective.  Offer a selection of books that speak on human rights issues to choose from.  I always knew my book was special and that it would have to find its reader.  I didn’t expect it to have meaning for everyone.  My point is that the reader who shows interest and seeks this book and wants to know about its subject matter should not be denied access.

VALENTINA MMAKA  - What can we authors do to encourage parents teachers, publishers to open their schedule  to more diverse books and topics so that young readers might be able to find mirrors and windows to quote Zetta Elliott?
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA - We have to recognize what our roles are.  Everyone has one or two roles to play in fostering a society that expects and includes diverse books.  Authors must do what we are primarily charged to do.  We must write good books.  Books so compelling their stories cannot be denied or hidden from view.  Publishers must stop underestimating the marketplace.  My dear friend and colleague, Coe Booth, was met with pushback from book buyers in different parts of the country because they felt their primarily white teens wouldn’t read fiction about a young black kid growing up in the Bronx (Tyrell).  Her editor from Scholastic got on the phone with these book buyers and convinced them otherwise.  Her books are doing quite well in these markets.  So, publishers must not only publish, they must push.  Parents and grandparents should simply mix it up a bit when they’re stocking their children’s home libraries.  At the heart of a book is always a story and a reader waiting to read it.  Schools are under siege.  Teachers are always digging in their own pockets to bring books in the classroom.  If schools aren’t up against financial hardships, they are dealing with time and testing.  Arts and music are scrapped from the budget and/or the schedule.  If books are next, then what are we preparing our children for?  How will they experience the inner lives of people who don’t live in their neighborhoods?  How will they experience commonality that can only come from stepping into the consciousness of another?  No solutions or suggestions here.  We just need books.  Diverse books.  Good books.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Being an activist and a writer not coming from FGM practicing communities, sometimes I had the feeling that I had to justify myself because we touch topics that do not relate to our live directly. Did you ever had a similar feeling, perception from outside?   
RITA WILLIAMS GARCIA - Good question!  How can I not feel this?  I knew I was stepping into this territory uninvited.  I had to do it anyway.  I knew I couldn’t simply represent my own sense of outrage.  I had to know more before I began.  Not merely the factual information, but the point of view that makes such a practice vital to a people.  For this small story, I listened to women across the spectrum to try to grasp why women would perpetuate a practice that would end in death, hospitalization—if available, irreparable psychological trauma, the inability to reproduce, urinate, menstruate or to fully engage her sexuality.  Whether I agreed or not, I felt I had the responsibility to present the possibility of a different point of view.  I also thought it would be helpful and necessary to deal with attitudes between Africans and African-Americans just to have that discussion of perceptions and realities.  I grew up during a time when claiming your African heritage was vital to our struggle for identity period.  People renamed themselves, wore African prints and learned Swahili.  And then I befriended a few Africans in college and learned that I was an American.  Rude awakening, for sure, but enlightening.  But on the subject of entering this subject uninvited, an outsider with no direct personal stake in this plight, I entered as I’ve been taught to enter a place.  With respect.

No Laughter here was published first in 2004 and I believe that 11 years later it should be read and taught, now that even young readers might know more about FGM and human rights issues. 

Rita Williams Garcia is the author of several award winning novels. Known for her realistic  portrayal of teen of color, Williams Garcia's work has been recognized by the Coretta Scott King Award, Pen Norma Klein, Americal Library Association among others. 

You can find Riuta Williams Garcia here

Monday, 20 July 2015

Meeting Author Emma Craigie - 1 #YABooksOnFGM

This is the first of a series of 3 interviews I had with YA authors who wrote about Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).

Emma Craigie
The first writer is EMMA CRAIGIE,  author of What We Never Said (Short Books 2015) a YA Novel. 

VALENTINA MMAKA - Emma you are a teacher and writer, how did you chose to write about FGM? Did you know about the practice before?
EMMA CRAIGIE - I had heard of FGM but I knew very little about it.  I was researching a different book when I came across the students of Integrate Bristol and their campaign against FGM and I was very impressed by them and convinced by their campaign. I was also very interested in the complexity of their situation as many of the students are from communities where FGM is practiced and in a very sophisticated way they were arguing against the tradition in the context of child abuse and violence against women.  They were really clear that they were not criticizing their communities’ traditions more generally, and were very clear why they were making a stand against FGM.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What was never said is a YA novel, I guess one of the first if not the first addressed to YA readers about this topic in UK. Why according to you there so little on book shelves talking about issues like FGM?
EMMA CRAIGE - Commercially FGM is a very difficult subject for publishers.  Many readers instinctively recoil from the subject, which is not to say that they do not care, but they don’t want to focus on it…  The crime writer Ruth Rendell’s crime novel about FGM was the worst selling of all her books.   I have a very supportive publisher – they know it will be hard work to sell What Was Never Said. 

VALENTINA MMAKA - In your novel you tell the story of a teen girl, Zahra, newly arrived to Bristol from Somalia, who has a small sister and who has lost an elder sister because of the cut. The day three old Somali women visit her family, she recognize one of them as the cutter, and decide to run away for a while to protect herself and her sister. There are many girls who run away from home to avoid being cut, if Zahra would have been in Somalia, do you think she would have the same courage she had in UK to take that journey far from home to save her life? Being in a foreign country helped her to take that decision?
EMMA CRAIGIE - I would think so, it has to be easier to run away in a politically stable country.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Through your novel you depict how FGM even in the diaspora is mainly a woman’s issue, in fact there’s a point in the book where Zahra’s father tells his wife that she “mustn’t hurt these girls””. From your researches how do men in the context of diaspora, perceive and are involved in perpetuating the practice?
EMMA CRAIGIE - One of the things that initially surprised me was the extent to which women who have suffered from FGM themselves continue the tradition, which must reflect the extraordinary strength of the cultural myths about the benefits of the practice.   I think the character of the mother in the book shows the inner conflict, presumably often unconscious, which this perpetuation must involve. It seems to me that in the diaspora, aware of western condemnation, men have very much tried to disassociate themselves from FGM.  In the novel I tried to reflect this, as you say, in the words of the father, while at the same time – through the actions (not words) - of the two taxi drivers, I tried to show how the fundamental threat of male violence lies behind the tradition.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Did you struggle, while writing this novel, to hold some judgmental critics towards the practice?
EMMA CRAIGIE - Very much so.  I was very aware that the book was a novel, not a treatise, and needed to hold the attention of a teenage reader who would not want a lecture.  I think it is crucial in fiction to give the reader the space to do their own thinking and judging.  Ultimately that is more powerful.  I did find this difficult.  There were various moments when characters – particularly Yas, Zahra’s cousin – launched into speeches about the horrors of FGM which I later cut back as they sounded too much like campaign literature, and not like real dialogue.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Where do you expect this book will bring you? Will you present your book in schools when they open in September?
EMMA CRAIGIE- My first school event is next week and I’m booking events for the coming school year.  I’m also about to do a talk to a society of called the Guild of Townswomen, whose members are aged between 60-90.  They have been campaigning against FGM for the last two years.  Although the novel is not aimed at this age group it is really encouraging to be invited to speak to such an unexpected audience.

VALENTINA MMAKA - During my artistic journey and while working on my book I met several educators in different countries telling me that talking about FGM in schools might raise new forms of discriminations, as a writer and educator yourself what do you think about this?
EMMA CRAIGIE - Yes, this is a real worry and an issue I have tried to address on my blog. My particular concern is that FGM is practiced in communities which already suffer discrimination, and it is easy to see how raising awareness of FGM could simply add to the prejudiced perception that these are violent communities.   I think this makes it very important that educators are clear about the origins and spread of the practice; how it pre-dates and is not endorsed by Islam; how it is not limited to any one country / community. On the other hand I think it is crucially important that educators do not use this challenge as a reason not to raise awareness about FGM, because the girls who are at risk of FGM need us to do everything we can to protect them and the key to that is educating the next generation.

VALENTINA MMAKA - What would you say to teachers and educators to encourage them opening up on issues like FGM and early marriage within the school curriculum? Being an educator, do you believe that topics like human rights, early marriage and FGM should be mandatory part of the school curriculum   in the diaspora and in FGM countries?
EMMA CRAIGIE - I definitely think that it is really important that all these issues are addressed in schools throughout the world.

VALENTINA MMAKA - Though the book has been published recently, have you already had feedback from readers?
EMMA CRAIGIE - I’ve been lucky enough to have some lovely feedback from readers and some great reviews from young readers as well as adults.  I was particularly pleased by a review for the Guardian by a 16 year old journalist called June Eric-Udorie.

VALENTINA MMAKA - I’m inviting authors to address a message to publishers to be more sensitive and ready to publish diversity in books for children and YA, what’s the importance of having books which provide mirror and windows on issues which normally are not under the spotlight or if they are, they are in a stereotyped way?
EMMA CRAIGIE - This is a very big issue.  I completely agree that there is a desperate need for more diversity in children’s and YA publishing.  Certainly in Britain this is in a context of an industry where both publishers and published authors are disproportionately white.  Myself included.  I think the whole culture of the industry needs to change, with increased diversity in every area, from who gets internships upwards. In terms of the importance of books about sensitive subjects I do feel that the big publishers need to take a lead.  Ironically it is so often small publishers like mine who take risks – yet small publishers are often financially very fragile and many have collapsed since the introduction of Amazon and ebooks.  On a more positive note, I think there are potentially huge rewards for publishers who do take risks. My message to publishers would be:  Our world is increasingly diverse and there is a massive audience of readers out there who are interested in an ever broader range of subjects from an ever broader range of writers.

I hope teachers and educators in the UK  will read Emma Craigie's book and consider inviting her to talk to their students.

You can find Emma Craigie here

The Interview is also part of my Book: The Cut.Global Voices for Change breaking silence on FGM (Edizioni dell'Arco 2015).